Standards: History Standard Two: Students will gather, examine, and analyze
History Standard Three: Students will interpret historical data.
History Standard Four: Students will develop historical knowledge of major events and phenomena in world, United States, and Delaware history.
Objectives: 1) Students will examine a photograph of a slave with her owner's granddaughter.
2) Students will listen to various first person accounts of life as a slave from To Be a Slave.
3) Students will write an essay describing the relationship between the woman and the child.
Materials: 1) Lesson O, Delaware Public Archives, Photograph, Purnell Collection, RG 9027
2) Quotes from To Be A Slave,
Lester, Julius. To Be A Slave. Scholastic, Inc. New York,
New York, 1968.
3) Lesson O, Delaware Public Archives, 1860 Sussex County Census, RG 0720
Lesson O, Delaware Public Archives, 1860 Sussex County
Slave Schedule, RG 0720
***Note: During the organization of the materials for this lesson, some of the labels for the photograph and the census/slave schedule became mixed. You may find a set of photographs in a folder labeled as a census/slave schedule.
1) Distribute the Jints and Hannah Photograph.
2) Instruct the students to examine the photograph while listening to quotes from To Be a Slave. Inform the students that you will be discussing the photograph after the reading is completed.
3) Read aloud the passages from To Be A Slave
4) After reading the passages, ask the students what they thought about the stories and the descriptions they heard.
5) Direct the students attention to the picture again. Inform the students that this is a picture of a slave named Jints holding Hannah Stockley. The little girl is the granddaughter of the slave's owner James Anderson.
6) Pass out the 1860 census/slave schedule. The census gives information about James Anderson and his family. The slave schedule lists the slaves owned by Anderson. Give a brief description of each document. (See the background information.)
7) Instruct the students to determine various elements of the documents in relation to the picture.
a. How old is the little girl?
(Hannah Stockley was approximately two years old. Her age in this census is the determining factor in the age of the photograph.) b. What is the occupation of James Anderson? (farmer)
c. Hannah's parents were Charles and Ellen Stockley. How old were they? (Charles was 40 and Ellen was 30)
d. Charles is listed as a gentleman. What is the occupation of a gentleman?
(In most cases, the term is another name for farmer)
1860 Slave Schedule:
a. How many slaves did James Anderson own? (fifteen)
b. How many males? (eleven)
c. How many females? (four)
d. Which slave is Jints?
(There are two possibilities - she could be the fifty year old female or the forty year old female.) Students should give reasons why they picked the age they did.
e. What is the age of oldest slave owned by Anderson? (sixty)
f. What is the age of the youngest slave owned by Anderson? (thirteen)
8) Using the photograph, instruct the students to write an essay describing the relationship they believe existed between this slave and the family that owned her. Instruct the students to examine facial expressions and clothing. Was Jints the caretaker of the child? Does Jints look happy? Why do you think the picture was taken? (She must have been important to the family if a photograph was taken with her included.)
9) Collect the papers at the end of the class or allow the students to complete their essays for homework.
This is the only known photograph of a slave in Delaware. Taken about 1860-
61, the photograph shows the slave Jints holding Hannah Stockley*. The photograph is part of the Purnell Photograph Collection (Photograph Number 10/6192a pn, Record Group 9027) and is listed under Hannah Stockley Paynter. James Anderson, Jints' owner, was a wealthy farmer who lived several miles southeast of Georgetown. Anderson's daughter Ellen married Charles Stockley. Stockley was a prominent politician who would later be elected Governor of Delaware. Hannah, the daughter of the Stockleys, grew up in the Georgetown area and married John Henry Paynter on June 19, 1883. She died on June 6, 1920 and is buried in the Episcopal Church Cemetery in Georgetown, Delaware. In contrast, the fate of Jints is unknown.
James Anderson (owner of Jints)
Ellen Anderson married Charles Stockley